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IME Journal
Year : 2019, Volume & Issue : IME Journal 13(2), JUL-DEC 2019
Page No. : 121-128, Article Type : Original Aticle
Article DOI : 10.5958/2582-1245.2019.00004.6 (Received on 26.08.2019 Accepted on 24.11.2019)

Poverty in India: An Empirical Analysis with Multi-Dimensional Approach

Dr. D.R. Agarwal1,*, Ms. Shikha2
Author’s Affiliation : 1Prof. Emeritus, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana 122413, India 2Assistant Professor, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana 122413, India

Corresponding Author : Dr. D.R. Agarwal, Prof. Emeritus, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana 122413, India,
E-Mail:-[email protected]


Poverty can be defined as a phenomenon in which a section of the society is unable to fulfil even its basic necessities of life. Poverty could be classified in two categories- Absolute and Relative. Absolute poverty of a person means that his income or consumption expenditure is so meagre that life is below a minimum subsistence level (even the required calorie intake is not available). On the other hand, relative poverty indicates the large inequalities in the form of assets, income and there are regional inequalities due to development gaps. Laster R. Brown in his book World Without Borders explains the poverty “unfortunately, it is not an economic abstraction, it is a human condition”. It is despair, grief and pain. It is the despair of the father with a family of seven children... when he joins the swelling ranks of unemployed with no prospects of unemployment compensation. Poverty is the longing of a young boy playing outside a village school, unable to enter because his parents lack a few rupees needed to buy text books. Poverty is a grief of parents watching a three year old child die of a routine childhood disease because they cannot afford any medical care. We inherited poverty right from the time of our Independence in 1947 (per capita income at prices then prevailing was just Rs. 247, few had jobs outside agriculture, literacy rate was 17 percent and life expectancy at birth was 32 years). In 72 years, all indicators have improved, millions have moved out of agriculture and hold jobs in the organized sector, the literacy rate is 73 percent , per capita income at 2018 prices is 1,12,835) and life expectancy has also gone up due to a number of factors for example sanitation, sewage treatment, clean drinking water, immunisation, control of small pox, TB and Malaria, better medical facilities, awakening for good health, reduction in Infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, maternal mortality rate etc.


Life Expectancy at birth

68.7 Years

At one

71.6 Years

At five

72.1 Years

At Ten

72.4 Years

At Twelve

72.8 Years

At Thirty

73.5 Years

At Forty

74.4 Years

At Fifty

75.8 Years

At Sixty

78.1 Years

At Seventy

81.5 Years



Source: Daily HT, 30th April 2019, P.19 ‘What is behind India’s Life Expectancy going up?’ by Bibek Debroy1


Poverty has been a big issue during our general elections-it was still a big issue in 2019. In this paper, poverty as a multi- dimensional issue has been examined statistically.


Literacy rate, Poverty ratio, Life expectancy
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